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The two nations were also split over the religious advantages or disadvantages the Union would entail. If 'Papists or Jacobites' had argued against the Union, he would not have been surprised. But not Protestants:. Because of the Presbyterian Settlement, the Church of England cannot now offer the Church of Scotland 'the least molestation, without flying in the face of their own constitution', he wrote.

Anti-Unionists were mainly moved by the fear that Presbyterian church government would not be guaranteed in Great Britain. James Webster, a Church of Scotland minister, predicted that the Presbyterian doctrine might be corrupted. He put forward various arguments against the Union:. Supporters of the Union generally maintained that in economic terms, Scottish affairs could only be improved by the Union. Sir John Clerk of Penicuik argued: '… tis scarce conceivable how any condition of life we can fall into can render us more miserable and poor than we are.

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After the Union Scotland 'shall come in to freedom of trade with England and it's plantations. England would also benefit from the setting up of fish farms by joint English and Scots stocks so that 'the Dutch might be entirely wormed out of that trade, and it could accrue to Britain.

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William Forbes of Disblair, for example, was worried that England was portrayed as devoted to pleasures and luxurious living, which the Scots despised. Increased tax burdens were the main bone of contention. An anonymous author warned his fellow Scotsmen: 'You must not burn your own coals gotten out of your own free coal heughs, in your own free houses, without acknowledging and paying taxations for them to England' and, maybe worse, 'you must not brew your own Scots waters at home, but you must pay double taxation to England for it.

The threat of increases in custom duties was enough to make fishermen at the Highland coasts warn: 'Merchants will be feard to puy mickle salt, pecauise of te great custom, and in case of a good take, it may happen salt is not to pe had for money. Commissioners first met to discuss the possibility of a union of parliaments when Queen Anne came to the throne in In April she appointed commissioners to formally negotiate a Union of Parliaments. Scotland and England each sent 31 commissioners, mostly members of the nobility.

They were hand-picked to ensure a favourable outcome for the Government. Among the Scots, there was just one critical voice, that of the Jacobite George Lockhart of Carnwath. The commissioners convened for only three months at the appropriately named 'Cockpit', in Whitehall. Apparently they only met once face to face! They debated:. They finally agreed that Scotland would have 45 MPs, just one seat more than Cornwall. A lot of time was devoted to matters such as duties on salt and stamped paper. From October until January , the Scottish Parliament met to discuss and to vote on each article in turn.

The Court government Party won the votes. As the terms of the treaty became known, Parliament was flooded with petitions and protests from barons, freeholders, burgesses, magistrates, deacons of crafts, elders, masters, commoners and tradesmen from all over Scotland.

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Aberdeen stocking makers were possibly the only group who were in favour of the Union. The printed minutes of the proceedings of the Scottish Parliament report briefly on its proceedings during the last months of its existence. He begged for an end to 'misunderstandings and fatal divisions'. Belhaven predicted a bleak future for all Scots:. I see our mariners delivering up their ships to Dutch partiners earning their bread as underlings in the Royal English Navy. Belhaven and other nobles such as the Marquis of Annandale and the Duke of Atholl vehemently voiced strong protests in Parliament against the Act, but they were in a minority among their peers.


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The barons and the burghs were far more evenly divided between those for and those against the Union. One of the few who actually stood up in Parliament and spoke in favour of the Union was William Seton of Pitmedden. He argued that because Scotland was 'poor and without force to protect it's commerce' it would not prosper until it took part in the 'trade and protection of some powerful neighbour nation'. If the Union was not agreed 'our sovereignty and independency will be eclipsed and our peace will be interrupted by factions for places and pensions.

Numbers of Scots will withdraw themselves to foreign countries'. Finally on 16 January, the Act ratifying the treaty was passed by votes to 69; the nobility formed the largest pro-Union group. The Scottish Parliament continued to sit until 25 March He urged the members to:. The new Parliament of Great Britain had a lot of work to do to harmonise laws, taxes and symbols.

William Forbes of Disblair, for example, was worried that England was portrayed as devoted to pleasures and luxurious living, which the Scots despised. Increased tax burdens were the main bone of contention. An anonymous author warned his fellow Scotsmen: 'You must not burn your own coals gotten out of your own free coal heughs, in your own free houses, without acknowledging and paying taxations for them to England' and, maybe worse, 'you must not brew your own Scots waters at home, but you must pay double taxation to England for it.

The threat of increases in custom duties was enough to make fishermen at the Highland coasts warn: 'Merchants will be feard to puy mickle salt, pecauise of te great custom, and in case of a good take, it may happen salt is not to pe had for money. Commissioners first met to discuss the possibility of a union of parliaments when Queen Anne came to the throne in In April she appointed commissioners to formally negotiate a Union of Parliaments. Scotland and England each sent 31 commissioners, mostly members of the nobility.

Fletcher, Andrew (1655-1716) (DNB00)

They were hand-picked to ensure a favourable outcome for the Government. Among the Scots, there was just one critical voice, that of the Jacobite George Lockhart of Carnwath. The commissioners convened for only three months at the appropriately named 'Cockpit', in Whitehall. Apparently they only met once face to face! They debated:. They finally agreed that Scotland would have 45 MPs, just one seat more than Cornwall.

A lot of time was devoted to matters such as duties on salt and stamped paper. From October until January , the Scottish Parliament met to discuss and to vote on each article in turn. The Court government Party won the votes.

As the terms of the treaty became known, Parliament was flooded with petitions and protests from barons, freeholders, burgesses, magistrates, deacons of crafts, elders, masters, commoners and tradesmen from all over Scotland. Aberdeen stocking makers were possibly the only group who were in favour of the Union. The printed minutes of the proceedings of the Scottish Parliament report briefly on its proceedings during the last months of its existence. He begged for an end to 'misunderstandings and fatal divisions'. Belhaven predicted a bleak future for all Scots:. I see our mariners delivering up their ships to Dutch partiners earning their bread as underlings in the Royal English Navy.


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Belhaven and other nobles such as the Marquis of Annandale and the Duke of Atholl vehemently voiced strong protests in Parliament against the Act, but they were in a minority among their peers. The barons and the burghs were far more evenly divided between those for and those against the Union.

Fletcher, Andrew (1655-1716) (DNB00)

One of the few who actually stood up in Parliament and spoke in favour of the Union was William Seton of Pitmedden. He argued that because Scotland was 'poor and without force to protect it's commerce' it would not prosper until it took part in the 'trade and protection of some powerful neighbour nation'. If the Union was not agreed 'our sovereignty and independency will be eclipsed and our peace will be interrupted by factions for places and pensions.

Numbers of Scots will withdraw themselves to foreign countries'. Finally on 16 January, the Act ratifying the treaty was passed by votes to 69; the nobility formed the largest pro-Union group. The Scottish Parliament continued to sit until 25 March He urged the members to:. The new Parliament of Great Britain had a lot of work to do to harmonise laws, taxes and symbols. One of the first proclamations of Queen Anne related to a new flag for merchant ships.

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This flag, the red ensign, officially brought together the crosses of St George and St Andrew. Rare books subjects and date ranges. Documenting the Union of Parliaments. Proclamation, December Sir Robert is said Buchan , p. While young, he made a tour on the continent, and after his return to Salton soon became a marked man through his local opposition to Lauderdale. In July he was rebuked by the Scotch privy council for obstructing the drafting of a number of men from the militia into the standing force maintained to overawe presbyterian malcontents Fountainhall , Hist.

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Notices , i. He voted in it with the Duke of Hamilton in opposition to Lauderdale's policy. Sir John Dalrymple, in a statement seemingly unsupported pt. Wodrow , iii. Certainly he had the courage with only one other member to record a protest against the provision of the act which made subscription to the test imperative on county electors, as well as on their representatives Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland , viii.

He is said to have addressed to members of the parliament anonymous letters beseeching them to oppose the Duke of York's succession Fountainhall , Hist. Observes , p. In April , as a commissioner of cess and excise, he, with some colleagues, was again brought before the privy council on a charge of not having levied a local tax to be applied in supplying the soldiery with corn Fountainhall , Hist.

Fletcher took part in the exodus of Scotch malcontents which followed the condemnation of Archibald, ninth earl of Argyll [q.